Leg Bone Reconstruction
The leg comprises the femur(thigh bone), knee joint, tibia (shin bone), and foot, working conjointly for proper leg functioning. But, accidents, massive tissue damage, bone tumour, or congenital leg deformity may weaken and break bones, causing handicapped legs. The leg-bone reconstruction surgery aims to join broken bones, correct deformity, and remove and replace leg bone deformity to restore functionality and appearance.
When Is Bone Leg Reconstruction Required?
The Leg -Bone Reconstruction Surgery Is required when leg bones are hampered, causing leg damage. The following conditions may lead to leg bone fractures requiring bone leg reconstruction as a remedy.
- Bone tumour
- Bone Crack
- Severe leg infection eg, gangrene
Types Of Bone Leg Reconstruction Surgery?
The bone-leg reconstruction surgery aims to correct leg deformity, stabilise leg bone and restore leg functionality by reconstruction. The bone-leg reconstruction surgery is of the following types:
Femur Or Tibial Reconstruction
When the femur or tibial bone fractures or weakens, bone fusion surgery or Internal fixation is required for bone stabilisation.” Internal fixation” refers to physically reconnecting the broken bones. The bones are fused in one structure with screws, plates, rods, wires, or nails fixing them in the correct place. The surgeon also uses a bone graft to expedite natural bone growth.
Partial Or Complete Knee Joint Replacement
The knee joint is a major leg part that enables a range of motions. The knee joint inflammation, osteoporosis, or joint crack may lead to knee joint dysfunction requiring knee arthroplasty. The surgeon will recommend partial or total knee arthroplasty depending on the knee’s condition to restore its normality.
Leg Bone lengthening
Leg bone lengthening or distraction osteogenesis is a gradual process of increasing existing bone length. This type of reconstruction surgery is recommended to resolve congenital disability, genetic defect, trauma, or bone abnormality.
In this, the bone that needs elongation is cut neatly in a segment, and as bone growth starts, the cut bone is gradually moved apart until the desired length is gained. The distance between the bones is maintained with internal or external metal hardware called a fixator. New bone fills in the gap, unifying and lengthening bone in a stable structure.
Tibial Amputation followed with Osseointegration
Very rarely, amputation surgery is done to eliminate the infected or diseased tibia. Next, the tibia is cut and replaced with a leg prosthesis with osseointegration surgery. The surgery involves inserting a metal implant in the residuary limb and then attaching a prosthesis to it to strengthen leg structure, imitating normal leg functioning.
It is typically done to remove leg bone tumours. First, the part of the leg with the tumour is cut and removed with the knee joint. The arteries and veins connecting to the low leg are restored. Then the ankle is rotated 180 degrees and joined in the residual bone. The ankle joint corresponds to knee joint function, and dissected bone unifies into one structure. Later, in six months, the patient is given a prosthesis that mimics normal leg functioning.
How Is Bone Reconstruction Surgery Done?
Firstly, the surgeon thoroughly diagnoses the leg and then recommends a reconstruction surgery. Before surgery, the surgeon explains the procedure and risks involved. Almost all bone reconstruction surgeries require bone dissection and bone fusion with or without bone graft, joined with the help of metal plates, rods or screws. Bone reconstruction surgery is a life-enhancing surgery that mitigates limitations of leg bone fracture and rejoins leg bones to restore leg functioning.
- The stitches would recover in 14 to 15 days.
- The bone grafts will need time for regrowth.
- The surgeon will instruct about regular cleaning of wounds.
- The surgeon will recommend a list of analgesics and bone healing medications.
- Initially, the surgeon will give an immobilisation device to refrain leg motion and better bone fusion.
- Later, the surgeon will refer some physical therapy exercises to regain leg strength and restore leg functionality.